2016年3月31日 星期四

There’s more than one way to pull off motion tracking in After Effects. Here’s a few of them! _在AE裡有更多方法去完成動態追蹤。這邊有一些!

資料來源 : source_from BY CALEB WARD 

After Effects is a fantastic tool for VFX work. This is especially true for motion tracking. However, the tracker you use to motion track your footage might not be the best choice depending on your specific clip. Let’s take a look at six different ways to execute motion tracking in After Effects and discuss when certain tracking features should and shouldn’t be used.
在VFX工作中,AE是一個夢幻工具,特別對Motion tracking的確如此。然而,你選的追蹤方式不一定對你的特定片段是最好的。我們看看在6種不一樣方式,在AE裡執行motion tracking並討論當主要追蹤功能應該和不應該被使用。

1. One Point Track 單點追蹤

When to Use It: Very quick 2D tracking situations centered around a single point with no warping.
使用時機 : 非常快速2D移動情況,中心環繞一個點,並且沒有包覆到。
The single-point tracker built into After Effects has long been a go-to tool for motion artists, but you need to be careful with single-point tracks because footage doesn’t normally shake in 2D space only. After Effects uses contrast to find track points, so you’ll need to make sure you set your tracker on a well-defined point. If you’re in a rush, one-point tracking will work, but for most professional circumstances, you’ll want to at least use two-point tracking.

單點Tracker,內建在AE裡對動態藝術家已經是一個長期協助的工具,但你需要小心注意,使用單點Tracker,因為素材不會只在2D空間正常的晃動。AE使用對比找出track point,所以你將需要確定你設的tracker在容易定義的點上。如果你很急迫,單點追蹤也能使用,但對大多專業分工的情況下,你會希望至少使用兩點追蹤。
In this tutorial from Live Tech Australia, we take a look at how to use the single-point tracker in After Effects.

這個教學來自Live Tech Australia,我們來看如何在AE使用單點Tracker。

2. Two Point Track 2點追蹤

When to Use It: On footage with mild to moderate levels of camera shake.

使用時機  : 當素材有輕度到中度程度的攝影機晃動。
Two-point tracking is fantastic for simple camera movements, as long as there are a few contrasted elements for the tracker to track. Two-point tracking is notably superior to single-point tracking because it can track rotation and scale, not just position.

This video from Robert’s Productions shows us how to use two-point tracking to add text to a scene.

這支影片來自Robert’s Productions,將告訴我們如何使用2點追蹤在場景增加文字。

3. Corner Pin Track 邊角追蹤

When to Use It: Basic screen replacement.

使用時機 : 基本的螢幕置換
If you do a lot of commercial or sci-fi work, then you probably do a lot of screen replacements. In order to help make screen replacements easier, After Effects has a built-in corner pin tracker that is designed to work with any four point surface. While it’s designed to work with screens, it can also work with picture frames, signs, and simple surfaces. In this video tutorial from LinkTCOne, we take a look at how to use the corner pin tracker to replace a picture frame inAfter Effects.

如果你是做很多商業類或科幻類的作品,那麼你可能會做到很多螢幕置換。為了要讓螢幕置換更容易,AE已有內建corner pin tracker,被設計處理任何4點的表面。當它被設計來處理螢幕,它也可以處理照片,標誌,和單純表面。在此教學(原教學已失聯),我們看看Corner pin tracker 如何在AE替換影像。

4. 3D Camera Tracking 3D 攝影機追蹤 

When to Use It: Matte painting, set extensions, and compositing.

使用時機: 遮罩繪畫,設置擴展,和合成
One of the most powerful features to hit After Effects in recent years is the 3D camera-tracking tool. The tool essentially automatically creates dozens of track points in your footage and allows you to select which ones to use after the computer processes the footage. This is your best tracking option directly in After Effects. However, the 3D camera tracker can take quite a while if you have a long clip.

近幾年來,在AE裡最強大火紅的功能,就是3D camera tracking工具。在電腦計算處理過素材後,這工具基本上,在你的素材中自動製造出數個追蹤點,並允許你選擇其一來利用。這是你在AE中最好的追蹤選項,然而如果你有較長的片段,3D camera tracker 會花你較多時間。
This tutorial from thevfxbro shows us how to use the 3D camera tracker to ‘composite’ a Christmas tree into a shot.

這個來自thefxbro將展示如何使用3D camera tracker 在一顆鏡頭合成一顆聖誕樹。

5. Planar Tracking Using Mocha 使用Mocha平面追蹤

When to Use It: Advanced tracking on flat surfaces.

使用時機 : 在平面上更進階追蹤
If you have a very difficult-to-track flat surface, then the planar tracking feature in mocha Pro is the way to go. Unlike After Effects, mocha Pro will use predictive tracking to track the position of an object even if a portion of the tracked object is off screen. Tracking data can then be exported from mocha into After Effects.

如果你有一個非常難去追蹤的平面,那麼在Mocha Pro的平面追蹤的功能是不錯的選擇。不像AE,mocha Pro 使用預測追蹤一個物體位置,即使追蹤物件的部分是在螢幕外。Tracking data可以從Mocha 匯入AE。
This quick video tutorial from short-form video shows us how to planar track in mocha.

這個來自short-form video,將告訴我們如何使用平面追蹤

6. Spline Tracking 曲線追蹤

When to Use It: Complex camera tracking jobs.

使用時機 : 複雜的攝影機追蹤工作
If you’ve exhausted all of the other options on this list, or simply want the most accurate track possible, then spline tracking in mocha Pro is the way to go. Spline tracking can track any type of shape because you custom create the tracking plane. Essentially, you trace around the object you want to track and mocha will try its best to keep track of the object. Data can then be exported to After Effects.

如果你對這列表感到困惑,或只是想更精確的追蹤,那麼在mocha pro的曲線追蹤是好選擇。曲線追蹤可以追蹤任何形狀,因為你可以自製追蹤形狀。基本上,你可以追你想要物件,而mocha會試著追出最好的資料,資料也可以給AE
This tutorial from mocha planar tracking & vfx tools shows us how to use spline trackers to do beauty retouching inAfter Effects.

這個教學,mocha planar tracking & vfx tools 將告訴我們如何使用曲線追蹤

2016年3月20日 星期日

Texture Tips for Production:Creating Tiling Organic Textures with ZBrush & Photoshop by: Bradford Smith 製作貼圖訣竅:使用ZB和PS製作原創連續貼圖 :編Bradford Smith

Texture Tips for Production

Source from : Vertex Book 1

Creating Tiling Organic Textures with ZBrush & Photoshop by: Bradford Smith

_____My goal with this article is to walk you through a bit of my process for creating tiling organic textures with ZBrush and Photoshop, as it evolved throughout the production of the Caravan Level of Uncharted 3: Drakes Deception. I’ll be demonstrating my process through the creation of a rock surface using source material I created, but these techniques can been applied to a variety of other surfaces. The goal here isn’t to sculpt a highly detailed unique rock model; instead we will be looking at creating a library of useful tool and alpha assets and how to use them to quickly assemble a variety of rock textures. While quality is of utmost importance, being able to work fast is critical in order to be able to respond to the changing needs of production. Very late in the development stages of the Caravan level, I decided to re-apply everything I learned during production and completely re-did many of my rock textures, materials and blending in order to get much better visual results. It was a calculated risk that paid off, but I couldn’t have done it without a solid workflow that allowed me to move fast and get predictable results.



_____Reference: It goes without saying, but good reference is critical. Know which reference to use as well as which reference not to use in order to stay true to the characteristics of the subject. Stay organized and use photo viewers with databases for tagging and rating. When examining a subject or surface, try to simplify it. Similar to the construction of a drawing, break it down into silhouette and broad gestural forms, then into the smaller defining planes and finally the finishing surface details. Try to plan your work based on those assessments, they will help inform the creation of the tools you’ll need and right amount of details that will need to be on them. Usually the models will contain the silhouette and gesture, so the textures will need to compliment them nicely with the appropriate level of detail.Always be aware of scale and distance from viewer as they will play heavy roles in those assessments as well.


_____Tools: I found that my best results came from arranging carefully constructed tools that I could use over and over again to carefully add and subtract as desired. If each tool is sculpted to have distinct looks from at least 4 different views then you can go far with just a few tools. Spend time creating these building blocks and save them to a library. It’s also helpful to poly-paint these tools before creating textures with them in order to get more variation in hue and value into the final product. If you need to just see light and value, you can keep your poly-painting intact by modifying the MatCap to ignore diffuse color by setting Modifier > OverwriteColor to 1.

_____工具:我發現我最棒的結果是來自精心安排的構造工具(Ztool),我可以一用再用,如需求小心增加或減掉。如果每個Ztool有獨特的外表,至少4個不一樣面向,那你就可以只要用這些Ztool就行。花點時間製作磚牆並把它們變成資料庫。對這些Ztool作poly paint也有幫助,在製作貼圖前,是為了更豐富彩度和明暗度成為最終成品。如果你只是看光和明暗度,你可以保持你的poly-painting 完整,藉由MatCap忽略Diffuse color,可以設Modifier>OverwriteColor設為1。

Modeling & Rendering Form


_____Now that I’m working in Zbrush for most of the texture creation process, my best normal maps came from careful attention to form and value. So being setup in a consistent, predictable manner helps me to achieve consistent results. I personally place much more emphasis on the sculpting of textures, than I do the color. If the form and cast shadow patterns aren’t both interesting and plausible, then it won’t make an interesting normal map and I won’t even start the diffuse color painting process.

_____現在,我工作中使用ZB,大多是在製作材質的過程中,我最好的Normal map來自小心注意在形態和明暗度。所以開始設定一個一致,可預期的方式,可以幫助我達到一致的結果。我個人會放重心在"貼圖雕刻"比我在色彩上的工更多。如果形態和投影的形式兩者都不有趣和不合理,那它就沒辦法成為一張有意思的Normal Map,而我也不會開始Diffuse Color的繪製。

_____Light: The default light in ZBrush is pretty good for general vertical plane textures as is. However, I find it helpful to preview my work with more defined cast shadows than the default lighting offers; even if my final render is going to have softer shadows for texture construction. It helps me to judge z-depth and a tool’s placement relative to neighboring tools when dropping them to the 2D canvas. Regularly taking a Grabdoc of the alpha is another good way to evaluate and ensure consistent z-depth across the canvas. Attention to z-depth is also an important factor in blending should you use your height map for that.

_____Light : 在ZB的預設光對大多垂直平面貼圖而言已經相當好用。然而,我發現使用更多的自訂義的cast shadows可以幫助我預覽我的工作,更勝於預設光。即使我最後的算圖,為了貼圖結構,會用較柔和的陰影。當我將Ztool拖到2D畫板上,這可以幫我判斷Z-Depth和Ztool的位置與它相關鄰近Ztool。通常採取Alpha裡的Grabdoc功能是另一個好方法去評估和透過畫板確認Z-depth。注意z-depth在混接(Blending)中,也是一個重要因素,你也應該使用你的Height Map在Blending上。

_____For more defined shadows, start by moving the light
just slightly up and reducing the Light > Shadow >
Aperture setting in the light palette.

為了更明確的陰影,藉由輕微提亮燈光,並在燈光面板中,減少Light > Shadow > Aperture (曝光)。

Materials: When I’m modeling in ZBrush I prefer the
WhiteCap White as a neutral sculpting shader. With its
slightly edgy look, I actually find that it keeps me from
making normal maps that are too aggressive and helps
me balance simple, clean forms with smaller superficial
surface details that I can adjust the presence of later. I
also found it to be a useful direct light render pass for texture
construction, so I modified a basic shader to give me
the same visual result yet work with the light palette.

材質 : 當我在ZBrush塑模時,我較喜歡WhiteCap的白色當成一個中性雕刻的shader,因為它的輕微邊緣的外型。事實上,我發現它讓我避免製作Normal Map太過冒險並幫我平衡簡單,乾淨的外形,搭配較小的表面細節,而我可以之後調整目前的狀況。我也發現它成為有用的直線光算圖pass,在貼圖構成裡。所以我修改基本shader,在燈光面板中,讓我有同樣的視覺結果。

Cavity Detection & Classical Value Structure: While the cavity feature is very useful for many things, I prefer a more classical approach to rendering form in my direct pass. I like surface details to be saved for the light-side and shadow details to appear soft. I prefer to set up ZBrush’s cavity controls to lend a bit more detail to the light-side while keeping shadows softer. You can do that by giving your Cavity Radius a negative value, and raising your Cavity Diffuse just a bit. It gives a bit of light edging to the edge intersections of planes that add a nice touch to final diffuse textures. If I need one, I’ll render out hollow cavity passes later and blend these layers together to control light and shadow detail independently in Photoshop.

Cavity 偵測 與 典型明暗結構:當cavity特性對許多製作事情是非常實用時,我傾向用更典型的方法去算外型,在我的direct pass裡。我喜歡表面細節為light-side保存並陰影細節顯示柔順。我傾向設置Zbrush的cavity控制借一些細節到light-side.當保持陰影柔順,你可以給你的cavity radius一個負值,並提高cavity diffuse一點點。這會給一點光邊在平面邊緣交會處,增加一個潤飾在最後Diffuse貼圖上。如果我需要它,我將會算出中空cavity pass之後,再到photoshop裡,混接這些layers,去獨自控制燈和陰影細節。

______Compare a lighter edge focused cavity setting (left), with a darker hollow focused cavity setting (right)


Texture Construction

Combined Lighting: Before I start working on my diffuse color map I always get my lighting setup inside of the PSD. I do this so that I can continually check my color map with my texture baked lighting to make sure they don’t fight each other. I generally like to use a few different renders from ZBrush to get my combined lighting in photoshop. I always have an AO render, and I usually choose supplementary renders based on these two goals:

合併lighting : 在我開始製作我的diffuse color貼圖,我總是在psd內,取得我的light setup.

我這麼做,因此我可以繼續檢查我的color map,和我的貼圖烘培燈光,去確定不會互相干擾。我通常使用一些從ZB


1. Something to control detail in the shadow-side.

2. Something to control detail in the light-side.

My solution most of the time ends up being one of the Framer materials and a Gummy material; if not a custom material.

我的大部分的解決方案,都是在一個 Framer材質和一個Gummy材質下完成,如果沒有自定意的材質球情況下。

Automation : To keep some predictability and consistency to my work, as well as to save time, I set up actions that composite all my layers just the way I want them as determined by a bit of testing. From here I can adjust as needed. It’s definitely worth investigating good automated practices in areas of your workflow through actions and batching. Freeing up tedious tasks
will allow you more time to make creative decisions.In the layer stack below, all of the layer organization, grouping, blend modes, opacity, masks and settings were all done by an action. All I have to do is make sure the above 4 render passes are present and named properly. After it sets me up I can tweak my default settings as needed.


Lighting Notes: Looking at my layer stack on page 101,
there are a few things worth pointing out about this
process and setup:


Set Black Point: Determining the blend mode and percentage of each layer was actually pretty easy with a few basics in mind. Lighting passes like the direct and AO I prefer to multiply. When I’m determining the appropriate contribution from each layer I’m paying attention to 3 things: my black level, dark-light relationship and sharpness of detail (in and out of shadow). But probably the most important and first thing I want in place is black level, or my darkest shadow values. I want them dark, but I want padding in the shadow side of the histogram as well. The detail renders are usually blended as soft light and weighted by the direct pass to control light and shadow detail.

設定黑點在我想法中,用一些基本選項,決定混合模式和每個圖層的百分比,是想當簡單。Lighting pass像是direct 和AO pass我偏好用multiply.當我決定每個圖層適當的作用後,我會注意三件事,我的黑階,暗處與光的關係和細節銳利化(陰影的裡外)。但可能最重要且我會擺在首要的事,就是黑階。或是我最黑的陰影階層,我想要它們變黑,但我也想延伸陰影邊緣。這細節渲染通常和柔光混合並被direct pass 加重,去控制光和陰影的細節。

Placing Local Value: I placed a neutral grey of 128, 128,128 at the bottom of my stack to act as local value in order to make this step simpler. After setting up my passes things have got pretty dark, so I’ll “expose” up a bit by using a curves adjustment layer and dragging the middle of the slider up. My only goal here is to place that local value somewhere in the half-light region of my light-side. Use the Info window in Photoshop to help pinpoint that value. If I do this properly, then my diffuse color only, AO, and lit versions of my textures should in more harmony with each other, anchored by local value placement. It’s good practice to keep a close eye on the Histogram window; when comparing the lit and AO versions, the graphed values of the lit should look like they are relaxing and expanding around the range set by the AO with a trend toward the local value. The graph should not even out and feel like it dove to the left. Doing this will help keep your textures in harmony should they be
used in the same or similar lighting environments.

放置基本灰階 : 我放置中性灰128 128 128在我的圖疊底層,當作基本灰階,為的讓這步驟簡單。把我的passes設定完,會變得比較暗,所以我用"Curve 調整圖層"曝光,並把它拖到中間。我在這裡的唯一目標,就是把Local value放在我的光緣的半光某處(這邊不是很懂),使用PS的Info視窗,可以設描點知道灰階。如果我做的適當,之後我的貼圖diffuse color, AO,lit(應該是Light)的版本應該會更和諧,藉由基本灰階為基礎。密切注意Histogram視窗

 info window
Histogram window

Compare Local Value (top) with AO Version (middle) with Lit w/o Local Value Placed (bottom top) and w/ Local Value Placed (bottom lower) (註 : w/o= without ; w/ = with )

比較基本灰階(top) 和AO(中間)和Lit 沒有基本灰階(底部上層) 和有基本灰階(底部較低)

基本灰階 Local value

基本灰階帶AO  Local value with AO 

Lit 沒有基本灰階(上層) 和有基本灰階(下層) 

Weighted AO (and other layers): You can always spot an image that has had its AO pass multiplied over the combined lighting. It’s important to remember that the AO is part of the ambient lighting and should be treated as such. A simple example of a typical composite with combined lighting would be: ((Ambient*AO)+Direct)*Diffuse Color. The addition of the direct light greatly reduces the visibility of the ambient occlusion. So, for vertical plane textures I generally like to assume some kind of soft top-down hemispherical light source, and give a bit more light (and detail) to my Y facing texture planes. It keeps things still feeling natural, but makes things pop a bit more as you get more play between light and shadow forms. A simple technique used here is to just weight your AO multiplication by the inverse of your direct.

加重AO(和其他圖層):你總是可以發現一張圖總有它自己的AO pass疊加在合併的光上。很重要要記得AO是環境光的一部分,並且應該被這樣使用。一個典型合成的簡單例子,用lighting合併:((Ambient*AO)+Direct)*Diffuse Color,此外,Direct light會大幅降低AO的可視性。所以,對垂直平面貼圖,我通常會假設某種半球型光源,並給一些光在我的Y軸貼圖平面,它可以讓他保持自然,但會讓它有些明顯,當你操作光和陰影外型時。一個很簡單的技巧在這被利用,就是加重你的AO疊加,藉由反轉你的光。

______Compare non-weighted AO (left) and weighted AO (right); both with and without shadow pass.

比較沒有AO加重(左邊)和加重AO(右邊) : 兩邊都沒有使用shadow pass

Quick Diffuse Color Tips : Because I’m usually focused on creating interesting forms for normal maps, I don’t spend a lot of time working on a color map until I’ve checked out the normals in game and am happy with the sculpt. So in order to drop something in game fast I have a few go to techniques for quickly getting diffuse color and specular maps done for normal map evaluation.

快速漫反射色彩技巧:因為我通常著重在為Normal Map製作有趣的形狀,我沒有花很多時間在Color Map上,除非等到我在遊戲完成normal和高興得完成雕刻後。所以為了讓遊戲的某事快速,我有一些技術可以從normal map 進化,可以很快的得到漫反射色彩和specular map。

Depth & Crevice Color Layers : If I haven’t poly-painted the texture in ZBrush, I’ll usually quickly build up layers of solid color mixed with layers of pre-made tiling texture. I usually have sampled colors picked from reference that I’ll quickly build up through height map and AO masks. It allows me to work fast and iterate on the local color and texture detail.

深度和裂縫色彩圖層 : 如果我沒有在ZB裡使用Poly-painted畫貼圖,我通常會快速建立純色圖層,去混和預先做好的連續貼圖,我通常會在參考資料上取色,我就可以快速透過Height map和AO mask建立,這允許我快速工作並重複利用在基本色彩和貼圖細節。

Detail Masks : A lot of times I’ll use whatever I already have handy like my AO render or the green channel of my normal map to mask detail. These can be used alone or combined in order to mask texture layers for grunge or sand buildup. A variation on ZBrush’s Outline material is good mask for quickly overlaying some edge detail.

細節的Masks : 我時常使用到,不管我已經有方便的AO或我的normal map的綠通道,去mask細節。這些可以被單獨使用或合併為的是mask材質圖層,做出髒污或砂礫的準備。在ZBrush的Outline材質的變化,是很棒的mask,拿來快速疊加一些邊緣細節。

Using Materials to Capture Color Information: Getting color layers from custom materials can save a lot of painting time, and quickly achieve things that would be hard to paint. For example, a modified Gradient Map material can be used to get horizontal striations across the forms of the rock face. The Fiber material is also great for moss and grass. For larger grasses, the material can be modified through ZBrush’s shader layers to render custom normal maps and mattes as well.

使用Material去獲得色彩訊息 : 從訂製的materials得到色彩圖層可以省下很多繪製時間,並且快速達到的東西,很難被塗改。例如,一個被編輯的Gradient Map material可以被利用通過岩石表面的形,得到水平條紋,Fiber material 對青苔與草來說是很棒的。對大量草地,這個material可以透過ZBrush's shader layer被編輯,也能去算出客製normal maps 和matte。

Color Correction: I often don’t get the color and value contrast set just right in these stacks to start, so I’ll always put some color correction toward the top of the layer stack. I prefer a single curves adjustment layer and like to adjust per channel to get subtle color shifts throughout the luminance range. It’s a lot faster than re-tweaking individual layers again. Even better, if I have a set of PSDs that are just variations on the same surface type, I can quickly update them all by simply updating my color correction if I need to; which I can also batch!

色彩校色 : 我通常不會只讓我的色彩和灰階對比在這些圖層中放置就開始,所以我總是擺一些色彩校色在所有圖層的最上方。我偏好一個curve adjustment layer並調整每一個通道,得到輕微的色彩變化遍及整個光罩區域,這比微調每一個單一圖層快上許多。更好的是,如果我有一組PSDs,只要換掉同樣外表的種類即可,我可以快速更新他們,藉由我的CC(如果我需要),而我還能打包!

The combined AO and green channel mask for sand and result (top); The custom ZBrush Outline mask and detail overlay result (bottom)

把AO和綠通道mask(沙粒)結合,合成結果(上方) ;客製ZB Outline mask和細節疊加結果(下方)

A modified version of the GradientMap material and a custom texture were used to create a mask for horizontal striations that follow the forms of the rock face. Custom Fiber materials were used to render passes for grassy top planes.

一個GradientMap(色階貼圖) material編輯版本和客製材質被利用製作一張水平條紋的MASK,跟隨著岩石表面的外型。(上方)

客製化的Fiber materials被利用算出在岩石上的草。(下方)

The uncorrected colors (left) and corrected colors using curves (right)


Quick Specular Tip : A simple thing to do in order to get a fast specular map is to use the Channel Mixer Adjust Layer. Set it to gray and move the sliders to get the best balance of even lighting and detail contrast. The best part is that it’s non-destructive and keeps doing its thing; so if I have it inside of a group above my color group, then every time I update my diffuse map to check it in game, I can quickly re-export an up to date, matching specular mask. For textures with a wider color gamut that need finer tuning, another useful tool is the Black & White Adjust Layer. These two adjustment layers can easily get you 75% of the way there.

快速反光技巧 : 為得到一張快速specular map,一件簡單的事要做,就是使用Channel Mixer Adjust Layer.設定它灰色,並移動把條,讓平均光線和細節對比得到最好的平衡,最棒的事,它非破壞性的,並且可以保持它的物件。

所以它在我的我的色彩群組的上層群組,然後我每次只要更新diffuse map就可以在遊戲內觀察,我可以很快重新輸出,符合specular mask。對廣色域的貼圖需要微調,其他實用的Black & White adjust layer,這兩種adjustment layer可以輕鬆讓你在此有75%的使用。

About Me
After graduating with a BFA in Computer Animation from Ringling
College of Art & Design, I was hired at Electronic Arts Tiburon
where I worked for six and half years and became the Senior Lead
Environment Artist. I joined the talented team at Naughty Dog
as a Texture Artist in the middle of Uncharted 3 development,
where I focused on the development and production of the Caravan



主修 Computer Animation,畢業於Ringling College of Art & Design,曾經在EA工作六年半,變成資深場景美術組長。我在頑皮狗曾參與有才華的團隊,擔任材質藝術家,在秘境探險3的中期。我著重在研發和製作Caravan關卡。